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A lot can be learned about Roman and Mediterranean gastronomy in the museums of Rome  . . .

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There are four seats of the National Roman Museum: Diocletian's Baths, Palazzo Massimo, Palazzo Altemps and Crypta Balbi.
Fear not, the latter is not a funerary museum, as we first thought, but a fascinating look at over 2000 years of archealogical history in one compact building. The exhibit is the building itself, which has walls and foundations going back to Republican Rome, but shows the passage of time through to the present day through the remains of architectural rennovations: Late antiquity, Medeival, Renaissance, etc.
The major focus is the remains of a theatre built by Balbus in 13 B.C. After the 4th century A.D. and throughout the Middle Ages, its spaces were used as tombs, artisans' workshops and religious buildings.
In terms of gastronomy, there are lots of displays of pottery, spoons, knives, amphorae, etc. and descriptions of Rome's place within the Mediterranean food trade. 

See our Guide to Italy Cooking Vacations